Sigmund Freud claimed that depression is anger turned inward. Today, psychologists have learned that is not always true. Sometimes anger is outwardly directed, and the person doing so doesn't realize that the anger is connected to depression. In cases where the anger is turned inward, the person may know he or she is depressed, but doesn't realize that they have a lot of anger, and it is the repressed anger that is causing the depression. Consequently, I thought it would be worthwhile to look at the connections between anger and depression.
First of all, we need to understand what anger is, what triggers it and why, and what effects anger has on the brain.
Anger is an automatic response to fear or pain. You can't prevent this response. Your body automatically produces norepinephrine, a brain chemical that reduces pain and energizes you to act. It's easy to see how anger helps us survive when we're threatened or injured. The trouble is that your body doesn't distinguish between physical injury and psychological injury. Nor does it see any difference between physical pain and psychological pain. The bottom line is that your body produces epinephrine whether someone is pointing a gun at you or giving you the finger.
It's easy to understand how continuing physical pain can lead to depression. Less obvious are the dynamics among psychological pain, anger and depression. What causes psychological pain? Feeling ignored, powerless, guilty, unimportant, rejected, or alone, for starters. In general, feeling bad about yourself arouses anger.
We cope with anger in several ways. Blaming our pain on someone or something else gives us a kind of comfort. It's not me that's bad, it's someone or something else. Lashing out bolsters our sense of power--remember that rush of adrenaline that norepinephrine provides? Unfortunately, the temporary sense of power is often followed by diminished respect from others, and the perpetually angry person has no real friends.
Finally, many people have been brought up to believe that displaying anger is not nice, nor really civilized, and they've learned to squelch their feelings, sometimes to the point that they can't even admit to themselves that they are angry. Keeping anger bottled up can lead to a host of symptoms that are easily recognized as being signs of depression, but those symptoms are seldom associated with suppressed anger, which is really the root cause of their depression. Some of those symptoms are:
1. Easily bothered by trivial things.
2. Constant muscle tension.
3. Always tired.
4. Chronic pain which can't be traced to a cause.
5. Addictive behavior.
6. Workaholism--inability to relax.
7. Being a people pleaser.
If you find that you are regularly troubled by any of these symptoms, consider that anger may be the underlying cause.
Next time, we'll look at healthy ways to deal with anger.
Stephanie Kay Bendel is the author of EXIT THE LABYRINTH: A Memoir of Early Childhood Depression – Its Onset and Aftermath, MAKING CRIME PAY: A Practical Guide to Mystery Writing, and A SCREAM AWAY, a romantic thriller published under the house name, Andrea Harris. She has also written numerous short stories and articles on writing.